Investigation on how the speed of a fan affects the rate of transpiration of dye of the celery (how fast the dye travels up the celery vertically)
Keane, Gordon, Jun Hwee
School of Science and Technology, Singapore
How does the speed of wind affect transpiration in celery?
This report is about the process of experimenting on celery and how fluid travels from the roots to the rest of the celery via the process of transpiration. This experiment mainly talks about how the speed of wind can cause the rate of transpiration to differ from each other. We aim to experiment and discover whether the speed of wind can affect the rate of transpiration, finding out how transpiration is affected by the surroundings, in particular, speed of wind.
In order to experiment and execute it properly, we are going to place 3 celery stalks in a beaker of red dye and let it transpire in front of a fan. After 20 minutes, we shall take the celery stalks out and start cutting the stalk from the top, stopping only after we see red dye. We then measure the length travelled by the red dye and record it down in our log book.
“Transpiration is the process by which moisture is carried through plants from roots to small pores on the underside of leaves, where it changes to vapor and is released to the atmosphere. Transpiration is essentially evaporation of water from plant leaves. Transpiration also includes a process called guttation, which is the loss of water in liquid form from the uninjured leaf or stem of the plant, principally through water stomata.” (Transpiration - The Water Cycle. (n.d.). Retrieved January 20, 2016, from http://water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycletranspiration.html)
The evaporation of water from the leaves removes water from the xylem vessels. This results in a suction force which pulls water up the xylem vessels. This suction force due to transpiration is known as transpiration pull. (Lam Peng Kwan/Eric Y K Lam, 2013)
After research, we have results as evidence to prove our findings correct. As the speed of wind increases, the rate of transpiration increases.
This concept can be applied in real life. To keep your celery fresh, prevent any contact with wind as the rate of transpiration is slowed down as the cell saps of the celery cells are being repacked with loads of fluid. It helps farmers and supermarkets as it gives a solution of maybe spraying mist when there is a strong wind or exposing them to wind to make them fresh and reducing the rate of transpiration.
“Most of the time, plants get their water from the ground. This means that the plant has to transport the water from its roots up throughout the rest of the plant. How does it do this? Water moves through the plant by means of capillary action. Capillary action occurs when the forces binding a liquid together (cohesion and surface tension) and the forces attracting that bound liquid to another surface (adhesion) are greater than the force of gravity. The plant's stem sucks up water much like a straw does. A process called transpiration helps the capillary action to take place. Transpiration is when the water from the leaves and flower petals evaporates, or, in other words, the water leaves the plant and goes into the surrounding air. As the water evaporates, the plant pulls up more water.” (Science Buddies Staff. (2014, October 6). Suck It Up: Capillary Action of Water in Plants. Retrieved February 25, 2016 from http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_ideas/PlantBio_p033.shtml )