Group Project Proposal (Science)
SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SINGAPORE
INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE
Names: Chionh Jun Hwee, Gordon Kee, Keane Tan
Group Reference: B
A. Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:
[ ] Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research
[ ] Measure a value: Experimental research (I)
[ X ] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)
[ ] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics
[ ] Observational and exploratory research
- Type & Category
Type of research: 1 Test A Hypothesis
Category – 20. Plant Sciences (PS)
Sub-category – (h) Other (Capillary Action)
Application of project relevant to SST Community, Society or the World:
Transpiration is the process by which moisture is carried through plants from roots to small pores on the underside of leaves, where it changes to vapor and is released to the atmosphere. Transpiration is essentially evaporation of water from plant leaves. Transpiration also includes a process called guttation, which is the loss of water in liquid form from the uninjured leaf or stem of the plant, principally through water stomata.
To keep your celery fresh, prevent any contact with wind as the rate of transpiration is slowed down as the cell saps of the celery cells are being repacked with loads of fluid. It helps farmers and supermarkets as it gives a solution of maybe spraying mist when there is a strong wind or exposing them to wind to make them fresh and reducing the rate of transpiration. (METHODS OF PROCESSING)
C. Write down your research title:
Investigation on how the speed of a fan affects the rate of transpiration of dye of the celery. (how fast the dye travels up the celery)
D. (a) Aim / question being addressed
We wanted to find out how transpiration is affected by the surroundings, in particular, speed of wind.
(b) Independent variable
(c) Dependent variable
Distance travelled by the red dye
(d) Controlled variables
- Type of celeries
- Length of celery used
- Type of fan
- Area where the experiment is conducted
- The ratio of water and dye in each celery
- The volume of water-dye solution
- Distance between fan and set-up
- Time before cutting celery
- Number of leaves on each celery
As the speed of the fan increases, the rate of transpiration increases and the faster the dye goes up the celery stalk.
E. Method – Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)
(a) Equipment list:
- Clean Beaker (250ml) x3
- Stalks of Celery x15
- Stirrer x1
- Stirrer x1
- 1 Bottle of Red Dye
- 150 ml of Water x3
- Pipette x1
- Fan x3
- Chopping Knife x3
- Chopping Board x3
- Ruler (to measure constant distance between the fan and setup
(b) Procedures: Detail all procedures and experimental design to be used for data collection
Set up the experiment as shown in the diagram above.
2. Pour 150 ml of water into each beaker
3. Form a solution of red dye and water (2 drops of red dye + 150ml of water)
4. Put 3 celery stalks into the beaker for 10 min (at different fan speeds). (ex. Speed 1, Speed 2, Speed 3) (3 celery stalks so that results would be more reliable)
5. After 30 minutes, take the celery stalks out and chop the celery from the top to the bottom until the red dye is visible.
6. Using a metre ruler, measure the distance travelled by the red dye up the stalk.
7. Record the information down onto a table.
8. Using the findings, plot a bar graph with the x axis as the fan speeds (ex. 1, 2 and 3) and the y axis as the distance travelled by the dye.
9. Test our hypothesis on whether fan speeds affect the distance travelled the by red dye.
(c) Risk, Assessment and Management: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.
Use of electricity when fan is plugged in.
Ensure all dangers of electrocution is eradicated such as there is not liquid contents near the plugged area.
When we are cutting the celery, We might cut ourselves.
Make sure that we are careful with out knives and that our hands are not in the way of chopping the celery.
We may injure ourselves with glass shards if we break the glass beakers.
Use gloves when handling the glass beakers.
We might get squirt red dye into our eyes accidentally.
Wear eye goggles.
(d) Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer research questions or hypotheses
1. Tabulate information into a table
2. Organise the fan speed-transpiration relationship into a graph
3. Test hypothesis
F. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major sources (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order for each type of source.
(n.d.). Retrieved January 20, 2016, from http://community.worldlibrary.sg.proxy.lib.sg/eBooks/WPLBN0004021449-Wind-Effects-on-Leaf-Transpiration-Challenge-the-Concept-of-Potential-Evapo-by-Schymanski--S--J-.aspx?AffiliateKey=Kgx5TtuZ3PSo2YaNmnJve4HVBfLQp9SG
Staining Science: Capillary Action of Dyed Water in Plants. (n.d.). Retrieved January 20, 2016, from http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/bring-science-home-capillary-action-plant/
Transpiration - The Water Cycle. (n.d.). Retrieved January 20, 2016, from http://water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycletranspiration.html
Suck It Up: Capillary Action of Water in Plants. (n.d.). Retrieved February 01, 2016, from http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_ideas/PlantBio_p033.shtml
Capillary action. (n.d.). Retrieved January 20, 2016, from http://water.usgs.gov/edu/capilaryaction.html